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19 augustus 2009

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Weet u het nog waar Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart dood aan ging? Die vraag kwam bij me boven na een klein literatuur onderzoekje. Rede voor dit onderzoek:

The Death of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: An Epidemiologic Perspective
Richard H.C. Zegers, MD, PhD; Andreas Weigl, PhD; and Andrew Steptoe, DSc
Annals of Internal Medicine. 18 August 2009 | Volume 151 Issue 4 | Pages 274-278

Elk jaar krijg ik wel twee of drie vragen van medisch specialisten uit heel de wereld die onderzoek willen doen naar de doodsoorzaak van Vincent van Gogh. Ze komen bij me, omdat ik ooit eens wat medische gegevens online heb gezet.
Met Mozart gaat dat precies het zelfde blijkbaar. Ik ben even de medische literatuur in gedoken. Ik vond meer dan 300 artikelen. Hieronder een kleine selectie. De enige titel die mij aansprak: The controversy regarding the cause of death of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart:

The skull of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart predicates of his death.
Vlcek E, Druga R, Smahel Z, Bigoni L, Velemínská J.
Acta Chir Plast. 2006;48(4):133-40.

W. A. Mozart died due to the consequences of chronic epidural hematoma after sustaining a dull injury to his head, probably at an early age. Exacerbation of the process was repeated over a period of many years and manifested itself as pyrexial disease, meningeal irritation with intense headaches. After the attack subsided, the illness manifested itself again. After the last attack of the likely infected nidus, Mozart died on December 5, 1791. Historic data about the composer's behavior indicate development of a temporal syndrome or temporal epilepsy with typical clinical manifestations.
(bron: PubMed)

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: not a urologic but an infectious pathologic biography?
Breitenfeld T, Jagetic N, Breitenfeld D.
Urologe A. 2007 Feb;46(2):172.

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: a case report.
Willetts IE.
J R Coll Surg Edinb. 1996 Aug;41(4):290

The pathobiography and death of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: from legend to reality.
Baroni CD.
Hum Pathol. 1997 May;28(5):519-21.
Mozart, perhaps one of the greatest geniuses of modern age, died mysteriously at the age of 35 in Vienna in 1791. The causes of his death are still somewhat obscure and debated since we do not have any documentation acceptable by current scientific standards. Inevitably, the conclusions reached are highly debatable. In the present article the various interpretations of Mozart's death are taken into consideration-from his possible poisoning to causes of death more acceptable by the present diagnostic criteria. We suggest that the terminal cause of death was brain hemorrhaging or stroke, complicated by broncopneumonia and associated with renal failure induced by proliferative glomerulonephritis and glomerulosclerosis.
(source: Pubmed)

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: disease and death
Franken FH.
Med Monatsschr. 1973 Dec;27(12):549-52.

The death of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.
Rold RL.
Indiana Med. 1994 Nov-Dec;87(6):464-7.

The cause of death of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Gojković A.
Srp Arh Celok Lek. 1990 Jul-Aug;118(7-8):329-36.

Mozart (1756-91): his illnesses and death.
Bourke GJ.
Ir Med J. 1991 Dec-1992 Jan;84(4):112-3.

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: a case report.
Fletcher S.
J R Coll Surg Edinb. 1996 Aug;41(4):290.

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 1756-1791: a mysterious death.
Outlaw KK, O'Leary JP.
Am Surg. 1995 Nov;61(11):1025-7

The controversy regarding the cause of death of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (28 January 1756-5 May 1791)
Ludewig R.
Z Gesamte Inn Med. 1991 Sep;46(13):491-500

The medical history and death of Mozart.
Jenkins JS.
J R Coll Physicians Lond. 1991 Oct;25(4):351-3.

Illness and death of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791). A contribution to the Mozart Year 2006
Franzen C.
Med Klin (Munich). 2006 Sep 15;101(9):761-72. German.

In the Mozart year 2006 also medicine has to deal with the music genius W.A. Mozart. It has been intensely discussed for a long time whether Mozart was poisoned, whether he deceased from a certain illness, or by self-medication and/or medical procedures. Consequently, his death caused wild speculations and adventurous assertions. Many authors assume that Mozart was a chronically ill man all his life. However, most of Mozart's described illnesses were harmless, and his unbelievable amount of work proves his extraordinary efficiency. The exact cause of death remains speculative. The story of a tall stranger dressed in somber gray who assigned Mozart to write a Requiem Mass and the circumstances of Mozart's funeral have additionally contributed to the generation of legends. However, if one gathers all known facts, there is no evidence that Mozart was murdered, and the exact cause of his death remains unclear.

Eric Hennekam
Twitter @erichennekam